|GRI||General Disclosure||Response & reference|
|102-1||Name of the organization||Emera Inc.|
|102-2||Activities, brands, products, and services||Emera 2017 Annual Report p. 9, 11|
|102-3||Location of headquarters||Emera Inc. is a geographically diverse energy and services company headquartered in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada|
|102-4||Location of operations||The data included in this report are relevant to Emera's significant operations located in Canada, USA, Barbados, Grand Bahama, and the Commonwealth of Dominica.
For a full description of Emera’s holdings by county see 2017 Sustainability Report pp. 5-6
|102-5||Ownership and legal form||Emera 2017 Annual Report: Inside Front Cover and p.9|
|102-6||Markets served||Emera 2017 Annual report, Inside front cover and pp. 21 - 28|
|102-7||Scale of the organization||Emera 2017 Annual Report|
|102-8||Information on employees and other workers||Emera employed 7,531 employees at the end of the 2017. 72 per cent of Emera employees were male, and 28 per cent female.Canadian affiliates account for 32 per cent of employees,
58 percent in US affiliates and 10 per cent in Emera’s Caribbean affiliates.
|102-10||Significant changes to the organization and its supply chain||Emera 2017 Annual Report
Management's Discussion & Analysis p.9 - 82
|102-13||Membership of associations||Emera has affiliates who are members of the Canadian Electrical Association (CEA) and Edison Electrical Institute (EEI).|
|102-14||Statement from senior decision-maker||See message from CEO in the 2017 Sustainability Report|
|102-15||Key impacts, risks, and opportunities||Emera 2017 Annual Report pp. 1-12 and 66-70|
|Ethics and Integrity|
|102-16||Values, principles, standards, and norms of behavior|
|102-17||Mechanisms for advice and concerns about ethics||Emera Code of Conduct|
|102-18||Governance structure||Management Information Circular 2018 pp. 22, 34-35|
|102-19||Delegating authority||Management Information Circular 2018 p.35
|102-20||Executive-level responsibility for economic, environmental,
and social topics
|There are several executive positions that have responsibility for economic, environmental and social topics, including the Executive Vice President Stakeholder Relations and Regulatory, Executive Vice President Corporate Safety and Environment and the Chief Financial Officer. These positions report to the President and Chief Executive Officer and report to the Emera BOD.|
|102-21||Consulting stakeholders on economic, environmental,
and social topics
|Management Information Circular 2018 p.72|
|102-22||Composition of the highest governance body and its committees||Management Information Circular 2018 pp. 6-18|
|102-23||Chair of the highest governance body||Management Information Circular 2018 pp. 6-18|
|102-24||Nominating and selecting the highest governance body||Management Information Circular 2018 – p. 30|
|102-25||Conflicts of interest||Management Information Circular 2018, p. 7-18, 24 - 31|
|102-26||Role of highest governance body in setting purpose, values,
|Emera Senior Executives are responsible for the development of the company's purpose, strategies, policies and mission statements related to ESG issues, with oversight provided by the Emera Corporate Council. These are reviewed and approved by the Emera Board.|
|102-27||Collective knowledge of highest governance body||Management Information Circular 2018 p.27 - 28|
|102-28||Evaluating the highest governance body’s performance||Management Information Circular 2018 p.33
Evaluations are conducted by the Board Chair annually.
Evaluations are conducted by the Board Chair.
|102-29||Identifying and managing economic, environmental, and
|Management Information Circular 2018 p.35|
|102-30||Effectiveness of risk management processes||Board of Director's Charter p.2
Management Information Circular 2018 p.24
|102-31||Review of economic, environmental, and social topics||Management Information Circular 2018 p.35|
|102-32||Highest governance body’s role in sustainability reporting||Emera CEO and Corporate Council|
|102-33||Communicating critical concerns||Emera Code of Conduct p.35 - 36|
|102-35||Remuneration policies||Management Information Circular 2018 p.40 – 70
The Emera Corporate Scorecard contains Stakeholder, Safety & Environment targets
|102-36||Process for determining remuneration||Management Information Circular 2018 p.40 – 70. Remuneration policy/process is the responsibility of the Management Resources and Compensation Board Committee, comprised of three independent directors with Human Resources and compensation expertise. Consultants are employed and are independent.|
|102-37||Stakeholders’ involvement in remuneration||Letter to from the Management Resources and Compensation Committee to Our Shareholder describes the annual "Say on Pay" non-binding advisory vote at the 2017 Annual General Meeting process which allows shareholders to indicate whether they were in agreement with Emera’s compensation practices and policies. Shareholders voted 97.9 per cent in favour of our approach to executive compensation.|
|102-41||Collective bargaining agreements||Approximately 39% of Emera’s employees were represented by a union in 2017.|
|102-45||Entities included in the consolidated financial statements|
|102-46||Defining report content and topic Boundaries||
The Emera sustainability report is based on corporate performance for 2017, unless otherwise stated. Emera applies the same reporting boundaries as the 2017 Emera Annual Report. The report contains consolidated data and stories covering Emera’s wholly owned affiliates and subsidiaries where Emera has operation control. It also contains partial (stories only) of Emera’s investments with an explanation of the nature of Emera’s involvement.
This report has been informed by the GRI Standards methodology and uses indicators derived from the GRI Standards (2016), GRI G4 Sector Disclosures Electric Utilities (2013), and the Edison Electric Institute Sustainability Metrics (2018)
|102-47||List of material topics||Emera selects the topics and data to include in their sustainability report based on the issues that we understand are important to our stakeholders and business strategy. Emera also draws on the opinions and insights shared by our stakeholders including (but not limited to) customers, shareholders, team members, communities, regulators and government, industry associations, business partners, suppliers and NGO’s.
In 2016, Emera conducted a review of sustainability materiality assessment for the electric utilities, industry, many of which were developed using multi-stakeholder input including: CEA sustainability materiality matrix for the Canadian electric utility industry 2014, Electric Utilities Research Brief 2016, RobecoSAM Defining What Matters – Mining, Metals and Electric Utilities 2016, EPRI Material Issues for the North American Electric Power Industry 2013, GRI G4 Sector Disclosures Electric Utilities 2013.
Based on this approach Emera developed the following list of issues that best represents the current social, economic and environmental issues that are important to focus on in the Emera Sustainability Report including: Operations and Innovations, Environmental impacts of energy generation and distribution, Customers and Communitiesand Our Employees.
|102-48||Restatements of information||None to report|
|102-49||Changes in reporting||No significant changes|
|102-50||Reporting period||Data are from 1 January 2017 - 31 December 2017. Stories and case studies are from 2017 and 2018|
|102-51||Date of most recent report||October 25, 2017|
|102-53||Contact point for questions regarding the firstname.lastname@example.org|
|102-54||Claims of reporting in accordance with the GRI Standards||The Emera Sustainability Report has been informed by the GRI Standards methodology.|
|102-55||GRI content index||This table|
|102-56||External assurance||The report has not been externally assured|
|General Disclosure||Response and reference|
|Direct economic value generated and distributed||
|GRI||Disclosure||Response and reference|
|302-1||Energy consumption within the organization||
Emera's energy consumption represented 2,433 GWh in 2017.
|303-1||Water withdrawal by source||
|303-3||Water recycled and reused||Emera affiliate Tampa Electric tracks recycled waste water for reuse at each of its facilities.
The design of the Polk Power Station cooling reservoir maximizes plant water recycling while minimizing groundwater withdrawal and offsite discharges. In 2017 Polk Power Station recycled 47 per cent of the water withdrawn for operations.
|304-2||Significant impacts of activities, products, and services on biodiversity||Emera’s operations do not have a significant impact on biodiversity either directly or indirectly; however Emera recognizes their operations can contribute to negative impacts including habitat fragmentation, loss of wetlands and forested areas or canopy with clearing activities, the creation of access corridors, and conversion of riverine habitat from hydro development.
Emera mitigates their impact though avoidance, site-specific environmental protection procedures that includes (but is not limited to): water management, sedimentation control, wetland protection and wildlife and species of conversation concern.
|304-3||Habitats protected or restored||In 2017, Emera affiliates implemented the remediation of wetlands and watercourses along transmission and natural gas corridors, working in partnership with various third parties.
Emera Newfoundland and Labrador (ENL) partnered with Ducks Unlimited in the development of wetland areas as part of wetland compensation for the construction of the Maritime Link Project in 2017. A partnership with Eskasoni Fish and Wildlife Commission was also established to document the colonization and biodiversity related to the rock reefs created as offset habitat in the construction of the grounding facilities as part of the project.
|304-4||IUCN Red List species and national conservation list species with habitats in areas affected by operations||Emera’s has identified where species of concern, including protected, vulnerable and endangered species habitats may intersect with their operations. Emera affiliates follow internal processes, applicable rules, and regulations when these species are encountered, or could potentially be encountered as part of operations.|
|305-1||Direct (Scope 1) GHG emissions||Emera Scope 1 Emissions: 22,885038 tonnes CO2eq
Emera Net Generation from all generating capacity: 34,482,007 (MWh)
|305-2||Energy indirect (Scope 2) GHG emissions||Emera Scope 2 GHG Emissions for 2017: 19,482 (tonnes) CO2eq|
|305-4||GHG emissions intensity||0.58 tonnes Co2e/MWh Total Sales for 2017
Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions
CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6
|305-5||Reduction of GHG emissions||a. 16% reduction from 2005 b. Gas included in the calculation - CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6
d. Scope 1 and Scope 2
e. Emera uses the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006 as its standard methodology for calculating Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions as well as the calculations describing in the attachment.
|305-7||Nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulfur oxides (SOX), and other significant air emissions||NOx : 22,957 tonnes
SOx : 74,426 tonnes
Particulate matter is determined when completing stack tests. Annual amount is not calculated.
|306:Effluents and Waste|
|306-1||Water discharge by quality and destination||Emera affiliate Tampa Electric Bayside and Big Bend Power Stations withdraw surface water from and discharge to Hillsborough Bay. Polk Power Station withdraws from and discharges to the on-site cooling reservoir. This reservoir discharges to an unnamed lake, which then flows to Little Payne Creek, a part of the Peace River/Charlotte Harbor Watershed. Polk Power Station also receives treated domestic wastewater from the City of Lakeland and the City of Mulberry. Polk Power Station uses the treated domestic wastewater as an additional makeup water source for the cooling reservoir, thereby decreasing groundwater use. The reuse of this reclaimed water diverts treated wastewater effluent away from the Alafia River and Tampa Bay Watershed. Tampa Electric makes every effort to decrease impacts by our facilities to adjacent bodies of water or habitats.|
|306-2||Waste by type and disposal method||Emera companies produced a total of 936,994 tonnes of fly ash in 2017. Of that 55 per cent (515,701 tonnes) was repurposed for other industrial uses in 2017. Emera companies disposed of 76.99 tonnes of PCB contaminated solid waste, such as metal transformer casings, and 43,870 litres of PCB contaminated liquid waste in 2017, in line with regulatory requirements.|
|306-3||Significant spills||Emera Inc. has an internal program for tracking and reporting environmental incidents. There were 35 moderate incidents and no significant incidents in 2017.
Moderate Environmental Incident - Include regulatory non-conformances with a low risk of sanction and releases that may cause some off-site environmental impacts but do not result in public or regulatory attention.
Significant Environmental Incident - Include sanctions or non-conformances that pose a risk of sanction, and releases that cause off-site environmental impacts with heightened regulatory or public attention.
|306-4||Transport of hazardous waste||Emera tracks and reports environmental incidents in accordance with the company’s Environmental Management System. All waste, including hazardous waste, is disposed of according to regulatory and legal requirements.|
|306-5||Water bodies affected by water discharges and/or runoff||
No water bodies were significantly affected by discharges from Emera’s facilities in 2016. All discharges are monitored and reported in accordance with regulatory requirements. Our facilities
|307: Environmental Compliance|
|307-1||Non-compliance with environmental laws and regulations||Emera was in material compliance with environmental laws and regulations.|
|GRI||Disclosure||Response and reference|
|401-2||Benefits provided to full-time employees that are not provided to temporary or part-time employees||Emera companies provide a comprehensive range of benefits for our eligible employees which can include health and dental insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, parental leave, wellness programs, pension plans and stock ownership. Stock ownership was extended to include all full-time employees of Emera’s companies in 2017. Eligibility terms of benefits vary by company and in compliance with local jurisdiction’s legal requirements.|
|401-3||Parental leave||Parental leave is offered to all full-time Emera employees.|
|403:Occupational Health and Safety|
|403-1||Workers representation in formal joint management–worker health and safety committees||Joint Occupational Health and Safety Committees have been established at several operational levels within each affiliate. The majority of Emera employees are represented by a safety committee. In 2018, as part of the Emera Safety program, Occupational Health and Safety Committees are required for all Emera affiliates (including where not required by regulation). Representation on committees are from both unionized and nonunionized employees and both management and non-management employees.|
|403-2||Types of injury and rates of injury, occupational diseases, lost days, and absenteeism, and number of work-related fatalities||2017:
OSHA IR: 1.49
|403-4||Health and safety topics covered in formal agreements with trade unions||39% of Emera employees are represented by a union. Where formal agreements are in place with a trade union, 100% of the agreements include health and safety topics applicable to the workplace. Topics include appropriate training, personal protective equipment, and commitment to safety programs.|
|411: Rights of Indigenous Peoples|
|411-1||Engagement with Indigenous Peoples||
Emera affiliates including Emera Newfoundland and Labrador, New Mexico Gas Co. and Nova Scotia Power have formally identified Indigenous Peoples within their service areas. Emera’s approach to engagement is based on establishing and maintaining meaningful relationships with Indigenous Peoples based on a foundation of mutual respect, trust and commitment using a collaborative approach.
In 2017, NS Power focused on developing with the Mi’kmaq mutually beneficial community agreements, creating opportunities for training and capacity building archaeology, construction and vegetation management and implementing cultural awareness programs for NS Power employees. NS Power also provided support and actively participated in cultural events and activities within Mi’kmaq communities, and Aboriginal organizations throughout the province. Business relationships including suppliers (products and services, partnerships and MOUs, Joint ventures and other business relationships have been established with a total monetary value of $670,080.00.
NMGC maintains business relationships with 17 of the 23 Native American pueblos, tribes and nations in New Mexico, as well as right-of-way leases and distribution license agreements.
ENL has undertaken Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Mi’kmaq Fisheries studies in corporation with NS Mi’kmaq and Traditional Use Studies with the NL Mi’kmaq. Throughout the engagement process, accommodations were made to address Mi'kmaq concerns, both in the types of studies being conducted and the design of the Maritime Link project. ENL negotiated and entered into separate Socioeconomic Agreements with the Mi'kmaq in NS and in NL. While the overarching theme was long term capacity development, the four themes of the agreements were: 1) Ongoing Engagement and Information Sharing, 2) Traditional Use Studies and Monitoring (during construction), 3) Training and Employment opportunities, and 4) Business Opportunities. The Project Diversity Plan, established under the Industrial Benefits Agreement with the governments of NL and NS, established aboriginal participation targets. Both agreements covered the construction phase of the Maritime Link Project.
There have not been any legal cases involving the rights of Indigenous Peoples associated with Emera operations.
|413: Local Communities|
|413-1||Operations with local community engagement, impact assessments, and development programs||Emera recognizes that how we operate and grow our business makes a difference to our communities. To better engage with our customers and community members on issues related to our operations, we set up Community Liaison Committees in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland & Labrador. Similarly, in Florida, we invite community members and leaders to open house meetings where they can ask questions one-on-one with the Tampa Electric team about upcoming projects. We incorporate the outcomes of these conversations, meetings and committees into our plans. This keeps us close to our customers and ensures that our future is built on a strong foundation of collaboration and understanding.|
|GRI||Disclosure||Response and reference|
|EU-3||Number of residential, industrial, institutional and commercial customer accounts||
|EU-4||Length of above and underground transmission and distribution lines by regulatory regime||
|EU-5||Allocation of CO 2e emissions allowances or equivalent, broken down by carbon trading framework||
Emera Energy is currently that only company in Emera Inc. currently participating in an emissions trading scheme. Emera Energy purchases allowances in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) to offset emissions from its US Gas Plants when needed.
Emera Energy had allowable allowances under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) of 3.9 million tons (3.54 million tonnes) to cover plant CO2 emissions for the 2015-2017 Control Period. Emera Energy was required to surrender 3.79 million of these allowances to address its remaining obligation for the Control Period. The surrendered amount covered actual CO2 emissions for 2017 as well as 50% of its actual CO2 emissions in 2015 and 2016. Please note that RGGI covers CO2 and not CO2eq emissions.
|Availability and Reliability|
|G4-DMA||Management approach to ensure short and long-term electricity availability and reliability (former EU6)||Customers count on us for energy to power every moment of every day, and for solutions for a sustainable tomorrow. Emera affiliates operating in rate regulated markets are required to have processes in place to ensure short and long-term availability. With respect to long term planning, this includes Integrated Resource Planning to anticipate long term generation and demand requirements and investment in assets to meet future energy needs. With respect to short term availability, this includes appropriate maintenance practices, including vegetation management to minimize outages, coordinated responses to events, including storms, and continual monitoring and improvement of reliability metrics.|
|Demand Side Management|
|EU-12||Transmission and distribution losses as a percentage of total energy||Emera T&D system loss was 6.8%|
|G4-DMA||At the watershed or hydrological basin level, include collaborative approaches to managing watersheds and reservoirs for multiple uses (e.g., irrigation, drinking water, ecosystem conservation, etc.). Also report long-term planning for securing water resources, for meeting the needs of both the utility and other stakeholders (e.g. local communities). This includes describing the criteria for managing maximum/minimum flow of surface water and volume of ground water and how these are determined and maintained.||Water plays a critical role in generating electricity at our hydro and thermal power plants. Whether we are drawing water to turn hydro turbines, or to create steam or cooling water in our thermal plants, we take care not to impact plants or animals in the area.
NSPI operates its facilities at an optimal that meet the Dam Safety Guidelines prepared by the Canadian Dam Association. NSPI performs dam safety reviews on a seven-year cycle, which include a flood study and comprehensive review of the hydrology of the watershed, and an assessment of climate data for the watershed.
All NSPI hydro systems are run-of-river, and water management is driven by seasonal availability of water. As such, the provision of fish passage for diadromous and resident fish population is an environmental risk. NSPI works closely with Fisheries and Oceans Canada to determine priorities for fish passage at its facilities.
In 2017, NSPI initiated a watershed risk assessment exercise to identify high priority hydro systems for further studies into migration options for any impacts of hydroelectricity generation may have on the river system. The results of which are expected in 2018.
At Big Bend, the plant drainage system collects and diverts rainwater and water generated by plant wash downs to the station’s lined industrial wastewater ponds. Bayside also has an extensive diversion and collection system which allows for reuse of rainwater and process water. To offset potable water use, Big Bend also receives about 2.5 million gallons per day of treated wastewater effluent from Hillsborough County.
TEC has worked diligently to reduce NOx emissions at Big Bend and Bayside, which has not only improved air quality in the region, but also enhanced water clarity in Tampa Bay. Through a partnership with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Tampa Bay Estuary Program’s Nitrogen Management Consortium, TECO Energy's investments to reduce NOx emissions and total nitrogen discharges to the bay have helped improve water clarity, fostering sea grass recovery. In fact, Tampa Bay now supports more than 42,000 acres of sea grass - more than at any time measured since the 1950s.
Due to the innovative siting of the Polk Power Station on previously mined lands, Tampa Electric was able to modify existing mine cuts on the site to serve as the plant's cooling water reservoir, which allows the facility to treat and recycle this water continuously to reduce overall water consumption, as well as reduce the need to discharge effluent from the site. The plant's design maximizes plant water recycling and reuse, and minimizes groundwater withdrawal and offsite discharges. Polk Power Station initially used groundwater drawn from deep wells to supply process and cooling water for the plant. However, the award-winning Reclaimed Water Project allows Tampa Electric to collect reclaimed water from the cities of Lakeland and Mulberry as well as Polk County, treat it and use it for cooling water at the Polk Power Station. This project is a cooperative partnership between Tampa Electric, the city of Mulberry, Polk County and Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD). It is jointly funded by Tampa Electric and SWFWMD.
The benefits of this project stretch across two watersheds. This project:
|G4-DMA||Programs and processes to ensure the availability of a skilled workforce (former EU14). Policies and requirements regarding health and safety of employees and employees of contractors and subcontractors (former EU16)||
In 2018, Emera rolled out a safety program which is designed to provide a comprehensive platform for the implementation, governance, consistency and continual improvement of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) across the company.
Emera's Safety Policy provides the foundation of OHS systems and programs within Emera and is a guide for decisions making and reflection of the company's core values. Ten core elements form the structure of the Emera Safety Program. These elements include: Leadership; Risk Management; Programs, Procedures and Practices; Communication, Training and Awareness; Cultural and Behaviors; Contractor Safety Program; Asset Integrity; Measuring and Reporting; Incident Management and Investigations; and Safety Auditing and Compliance. The program is monitored, maintained, and upgraded to improve the program and better manage risk.
|EU15||Percentage of employees eligible to retire in the next 5 and 10 years broken down by job category and by region||
Approximately 38 per cent of Emera employees are eligible to retire within 5 years, and 13 per cent within 10 years. In Emera’s Canadian affiliates that percentage is approximately 7 per cent and 5 per cent respectively, 30 per cent and 8 percent for Emera’s United States affiliates and 1 per cent and 0.5 per cent in Emera’s Caribbean affiliates.
|EU18||Percentage of contractor and subcontractor employees that have undergone relevant health and safety training||Emera has revised its Contractor Management Process and in 2018 rolled out a revised process that will be implemented in all affiliates. In 2017, there were affiliate specific processes in place. Affiliates who reported training 100% of contractors on applicable health and safety requirements were: Emera Energy, Emera Brunswick Pipeline, Emera Newfoundland and Labrador, Emera Utility Services, Grand Bahama Power, and New Mexico Gas Co.|
|G4-DMA||Stakeholder participation in decision making processes related to energy planning and infrastructure development (former EU19).||Emera draws on the opinions and insights shared by our stakeholders in our many daily interactions across the markets we serve. These can include meetings, conferences and events, customer and employee surveys, customer service channels and reviewing media coverage. Our stakeholders include, but are not limited to, our customers, shareholders, team members, our communities, regulators and government, industry associations, business partners, suppliers and NGOs.
Emera recognizes that how we operate and grow our business makes a difference to our communities. To better engage with our customers and community members on issues related to our operations, we set up Community Liaison Committees in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Newfoundland & Labrador. Similarly, in Florida, we invite community members and leaders to open house meetings where they can ask questions one-on-one with the Tampa Electric team about upcoming projects. We incorporate the outcomes of these conversations, meetings and committees into our plans. This keeps us close to our customers and ensures that our future is built on a strong foundation of collaboration and understanding.
Emera recognizes the importance of building mutually beneficial relationships with indigenous people. Our goal is to establish these relationships on a foundation of respect and trust that acknowledges the culture, heritage and traditions of indigenous people.
The Nova Scotia Power team has been working with governments, stakeholders and regulators over the past decade to plan the transition to renewable energy in a way that balances carbon reduction targets and costs for customers.
ENL consultation with stakeholders including regulatory agencies, residents, landowners, commercial fish harvesters, industry, the business community, guide outfitters, hunters, anglers, special-interest groups and the general public.
|EU22||Number of people physically or economically displaced and
Compensation, broken down by type of project
There may be projects where it is necessary to acquire assets or restrict activity in certain areas. In these incidents, compensation is provided For example, during the Horizontal Directional Drilling and subsea cable installation for the Emera Maritime Link project, lobster and crab harvesters were temporarily restricted from fishing in areas when project activities were ongoing. Prior to these activities occurring, compensation was negotiated with affected harvesters. Once drilling/cable installation activities were completed, harvesters could return to the area.
If properties have to be acquired for projects such as new substations, or if transmission line ROW access needs to be obtained, then compensation is provided
|Disaster/Emergency Planning and Response|
|Customer Health and Safety|
|EU26||Percentage of population unserved in licensed distribution or service areas||With respect to the service areas of our regulated utilities, there are no material areas that are unserved. Essentially 100% of customers in our service territories have access to electricity (0% unserved)|
|Power outage frequency & Average power outage duration||
*SAIDI and SAFI are industry wide metrics that assess the reliability of the electric system. Given the increased frequency and intensity of large storms, these metrics are calculated both with all outages included and with major event days (large storms) and planned outages removed.